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This can lead to armatures that will not perform as expected. To Add or to Remove? The high RPM encountered with slot car motors usually indicates the use of drill balancing. High centrifugal force and the elevated temperatures encountered in slot car armatures precludes the use of epoxy balancing.
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Blueprinting slot car motors - Tech How-Tos & Tutorials - Slotblog



The diagram at right shows the wiring of a typical 1:24 or 1:32 slot car setup. Power for the car's motor is carried by metal strips next to the slot, and is picked up by contacts alongside the guide flag (a swiveling blade) under the front of the slot car. The voltage is varied by a resistor in the hand controller.
While going faster is a noble aim, a fast car isnโ€™t always the most fun, or necessarily your favourite car. To make my fun car, I wanted it to be like car chases were on TV when I was a kid โ€“ with a good sized American car, lots of lurid tail slides, probably doing less than 50mph but looking fast and almost out of control.

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Slotblog has published one of Ken's technical tomes before,and here's the next one, Blueprinting Slot Car Motors, which is as complete and deep a dissertation on slot car motors as has ever been seen IMO.
In MS Word, it is 59 pages long, with 83 images!
Ken has kindly provided a number of other technical treatises that will all eventually be posted here at Slotblog.
Thanks to him for sharing his vast experience and knowledge for the betterment of our hobby.
There is no point in winning by cheating โ€” or finding yourself disqualified after winning.
Scrutineering tends to get more intense the more you win.
These problems are not specifically applicable to the Pro Slot SpeedFX shown in photos which is generally a fine motor.
The following blueprinting was performed on a SpeedFX motor โ€” but this applies to virtually all slot car motors.
The following 17 steps cover the basics โ€” after that is starts to get a lot more complicated and technical.
It should not be bent so far that you have to bend it open each time you need to remove a spring โ€” if you bend this tab more than a couple of times it will break off โ€” so now is the time to set it correctly.
Bend it inwards or outwards as required.
Release the springs โ€” being careful not to let them fly off you may never see them again.
Check that both springs are set the same โ€” in the photo above they are different as supplied.
If the springs press unequally then a side load is imposed on the bearing which will waste power.
Normal setting is 90ยฐ as per the left spring abovebend until both are the same.
Never use a mismatched pair of springs.
As the brushes wear down this angle is going to get less and less anyway.
I prefer to run the motor in at 90ยฐ and then reduce it slightly โ€” to about the position of the right hand spring in the above photo.
Remove springs and brushes.
Note: the springs are left and right handed.
This works for overset lugs.
It is not always so.
If the crimp-in tags are bent in, pry them up with a small screwdriver.
Remove endbell and pull apart.
Note: The blue magnet and the endbell bush simply came out with the armature as I pulled it apart โ€” this is the kind of bad fit up we are trying to eliminate.
Note: The white magnet is on the left axle side โ€” again if you get these the wrong way around the motor will run in reverse with normal connections โ€” so watch it.
Step 2 โ€” Fix the Bearings in Place Push the bronze bush out of the plastic end bell Wash the bush, endbell, and motor housing in a solvent such as naphtha.
An old 35mm film canister makes a great slot car motor washing machine.
Be careful not to get solder into the bore of the bush โ€” if you do the bush is useless and it will have to be replaced.
Tip: get solder to take on the can first and let it spread to the bush.
If your rules permit it, replace this with a ball bearing โ€” also solder in place.
Bearing is a metric flange MF52ZZ KOYO, JAP or similar.
Place a drop of cyanoacrylate "superglue" in the endbell and push the bush solidly back into place.
Tip: Get a drop of superglue onto a piece of scrap copper wire and use that as a probe to apply the superglue โ€” this way you can avoid over-glueing.
Step 3 โ€” Check Bush Alignment Check the alignment of the bushes using a 2.
Here I am using a 2mm die ejector pin available from engineering suppliers like Toolquip โ€” you can obviously just use the armature โ€” to check that it spins freely.
If it is tight try to find out which end is causing the problem and use the pin to flex ho slot car can motors place โ€” you may end up resoldering or reglueing to cure the problem โ€” Do not use the armature as a prybar.
Step 4 โ€” Check Brush Hood Alignment Use a brush hood alignment bar to ensure the commutator brush hoods are accurately aligned.
Here you must use a 2.
See later โ€” info section on motors and timing.
You should also be checking the fit of your brush hoods to the brushes โ€” the alignment bar also permits you to squeeze or panel beat the hoods to a better fit.
Ideally the brushes should slide freely with as little clearance as possible.
They should be flush against the outboard ends of the can and both should be in the same position relative to each other โ€” if not bend the offending tab until they are identical.
Loosely assemble the can, armature, and endbell no need to replace the screws.
Spin the armature with your fingers and allow it to freewheel to rest.
Push the shaft in to see if there is clearance between the armature and the endbell bush.
The push from the endbell end to see if there is clearance between the armature and the can bush.
What we want is for the armature to spin and self-center itself inside the magnetic field and come to a halt with 0.
We do not want it rubbing at either end.
Remember, under power the armature will pull hard towards the magnetic centerline and if it is prevented from doing so will bear hard against the offending bearing bush.
This will result in a loss of power to friction.
If it is bearing hard against the outboard can bush as is the case in the photo above we need to push this armature spacer further back.
But before doing so we need to check the position of the commutator relative to the brush hoods.
In the above photo there is excessive clearance at the endbell - I have already adjusted the outboard spacer as far back as it will go โ€” I cannot go any further or the brushes will run off the edge of the commutator.
If you reach this point it has become necessary to move the magnets backwards towards the end bell until there ist some clearance between the armature and the outboard end.
Photo above โ€” adjusting spacer using a pinion pushing tool.
Do this incrementally, checking at each adjustment for clearance or until you run into the limit imposed by the edge of the commutator.
If you need to move the magnets back towards the endbell, do so by bending the magnet retaining tab using a punch and hammer as per photo below.
Make sure you do both the same and do so incrementally checking after each adjustment.
Bending magnet restraining tabs backwards if necessary to move magnets back.
After getting clearance at the outboard end we need to set the clearance at the endbell.
In this case it needs to move out which is a lot harder than inwards.
You can shift it using a sharp pair of diagonal cutters as a wedge.
Alternatively add motor spacers, which is safer.
Some motors simply use loose spacers.
When using spacers there should always be a phenolic plastic spacer immediately behind the commutator.
A selection of motor spacers.
CAUTION: Before doing this use latex gloves or apply barrier cream to your hands โ€” especially if you have been using naphtha โ€” cleaned skin can become permanently attached with superglue.
You can become way too attached to your hobbies.
Dribble superglue into all the edges around the magnets.
Glue any place you can get to.
If at this commit can i deposit bankwest at cba matchless you are having any bright ideas about using glue to space the magnets closer to the armature for more power performance โ€” you would be hopelessly wrong โ€” see detailed explanation later as well as tips for shimming, etc.
Now would be a good time to zap your magnets see later.
Step 6 โ€” Set up your Armature This is your armature.
We are going to do the following โ€” in apologise, game apps you can make money off of words order: 1 Set the spacing as per above.
Zero degrees is when the gaps in the commutator align with the center of the armature poles.
Advanced is when the gaps are offset counterclockwise the direction the motor runs in viewed from the commutator end.
Note: This is only true where the brushes lie in the same plane as the magnets โ€” it is not true for motors such as NC5 and 6, which have their brushes at an angle to the magnets and also have an offset wind.
You will need a gauge โ€” so here is oneโ€ฆ Stick it onto a piece of card and make the hole in the middle to suit the armature โ€” or you can go mad and stick it to a piece of aluminium 60mm dia.
Set zero at pole dead center sometimes there is a marker groove, as in this case or align markers to gaps symmetrically.
Use a straight edge to take a reading from a just click for source groove to a parallel line-up on the gauge โ€” when viewing from directly astern.
Adjustment: first check there is sufficient slack in the wires to the commutator to permit the adjustment.
Next: Attempt to twist the commutator using your fingers โ€” this is the safest method.
Use a chuck to grab the comm by the connector diameter slightly bigger than the comm itself while simultaneously turning up against the connector points themselves.
In the above photos the binding is still in place illustrative only.
Move in small increments, check frequently for tight wires which may be as far as you can go.
With soldered comutators it is sometimes advisable to desolder the wires, make the desired adjustment, and then resolder them.
Step 8 โ€” Solder the Commutator Due to idiotic lead reduction laws Caution: this product may contain substances harmful to pregnant women โ€” I know pregnant women get cravings but I never heard of one eating a slot car armature?
Caution: Do not solder the commutator unless you have access to commutator truing facilities such as a lathe or a Hudy comm truing machine or similar.
You are going to need it if you solder.
To solder a commutator, you need high temperature solder.
Making lead swarf to add to solder.
Add lead to solder.
Solder will almost always reach the comm โ€” hence the need to skim.
Bind 4-5 turns depending on thicknessknot, lacquer clear nail polish will do allow to dry then trim.
Note: Lacquering also helps re-secure the comm if you have moved it.
If you found the comm easy to move you can add a dab of superglue to the back of the comm before binding and lacquering.
Inspect the windings for any loose turns these will fret and ultimately break and if found, lacquer to secure into place.
Step 10 โ€” Replace the Motor Shaft A shaft might become bent in a crash.
It can be replaced by pushing out the old shaft with a new one use a 2.
This is not as easy as it sounds โ€” you need special tooling to keep everything lined up and to prevent the shafts from buckling.
You start with both short and long anti-buckling spacers in โ€” when it dead-lengths remove the short one, when it dead-lengths again swap the long one with the short one and finally after it dead-lengths again remove the short one and complete the assembly.
The keyway Detail 4 is very important to prevent rotation Detail 1A โ€” Key runs in this groove โ€” without it you will twist off the commutator you can guess how I figured that one out.
The above PS700B arm was damaged by failing to lubricate the rear bush โ€” after shaft replacement and a comm skim it was as good as new.
It is obvious that you have probably not added or removed the weight from exactly opposite the error so when the motor is rotated at high speed it would still be out of balance to some extent.
It follows that a dynamically balanced object is also statically balanced but not vice versa.
These motors are dynamically balanced but since this is a mass production process the balancing process is generally imperfect.
Dynamic balancing is way beyond anything you can do at home.
Having said that the web holds many plans for home built rigs so it is possible.
So we go for a static balance on the understanding that if it is not statically balanced then neither is it correctly dynamically balanced and any improvement we make statically must still be better than leaving it as it was.
Balance on Stanley Knife blades is done like this: You can make the block from dense fiberboard see drawings.
The three levelling screws are used to eliminate any slope or bias.
Use brand new blades and be careful not to drop the armature onto them โ€” place it very carefully in place โ€” otherwise you create dents in the sharp edges which become obvious as biased behaviour.
Get it levelled so the armature does not roll to one end or the other by itself.
Allow the armature to roll push it slightly โ€” if it has a heavy side it will always stop in the same position.
Rotate multiple times to be sure.
If you can positively identify a heavy side โ€” remove from the blades and drill material out of the heavy side.
Use a 3mm drill โ€” if there are two holes in that pole remove material equally from both.
If you need to remove more, drill a third hole in between the existing two.
If you drill too deep the core may break out at high revs.
Remove material in very small quantities, checking frequently.
Repeat until the armature comes to rest in any position.
Caution: Keep in a safe place or container when not in use.
These sharp blades are a real hazard if simply left lying around.
Step 12 โ€” Balance the Armature with a hammer???
If you are simply checking an old armature that you know for a fact was balanced but is now out of balance โ€” particularly if it is severely out of balance, then the armature shaft is bent.
Note: Small changes in balance are normal due to heat softening of the winding lacquer and some shifting of the winding during hot use.
If in doubt check the run out with a dial gauge.
Since it was in balance then we can correct it by bending it back โ€” by hitting with a small hammer on a suitable anvil until we get it back into balance, at which point the shaft should be straight again.
Hit on the anvil heavy side up โ€” never on the blades.
If you get somewhere close to balance โ€” stop hitting it is unlikely you will ever get it completely right with something as brutal as a hammer and go to drilling it back to balance.
Step 13 โ€” Skim the Commutator When the commutator was made it was probably diamond turned by some inscrutable oriental gentleman in a factory in Wanking.
Unfortunately after all the slings and arrows of assembly and errors in the shaft and assembly process, etc.
We have by now also got solder onto the running surface so all in all we need to give it a skim to restore it to true.
To do this you can use a Hudy commutator truing machine or, my personal favorite, a bench lathe.
You need a very sharp cutting tool in high speed steel or Syndite synthetic diamond with a large side rake and ground almost to a polish on very fine wheels.
Keep this tool only for skimming commutators.
You also need a clamping bush and a tailstock bush โ€” refer to photo below.
Mount clamp bush and secured armature in four-jaw chuck and adjust to true with a dial gauge.
Run the commutator end in a guide tube a piece of 5mm brass rod reamed to 2.
You could also use a motor bush in the drill chuck โ€” but tool access can be a problem.
Apply paraffin or turpentine as lubricant with a brush and turn at 2,000 RPM, taking very light cuts until the commutator cleans up.
When skimming an old comm, you get to see how bad it was as it cleans up.
If you do it right with a suitably sharpened tool then the grooves will not need deburring.
If they need deburring use a sharp Exacto knife and a sharpened toothpick to clean out the grooves.
Give it a final polish using 1200 water paper with paraffin or turpentine as a lubricant.
You have been warned!
Skimming the comm generally does not upset the balance unless you removed a stupidly large piece of solder in the process โ€” so you might just want to return it to the balancing rig for a final test.
Our completed spaced, bound, soldered, balanced, and trued armature.
The above Pro Slot PS700B "Big Dog" armature โ€” CNC wound, thin laminations โ€” is perfection and a work of art.
But this next step is going to make a mess โ€” no way around it โ€” so we will still have to clean up before assembly.
The rear of the motor will in most cases foul the rear axle in spite of the cut-out in the can so we normally grind a groove here.
This is best done with the motor disassembled โ€” it is difficult to get all the junk out of a closed motor.
Grind out using a diamond-coated burr and a Dremel.
You can also do it on the corner of a grinding wheel but that is not as good.
As in the photo turn a mandrel with a 2mm diameter pilot shaft and a diameter that matches your commutator โ€” less the thickness of the 600 emery paper you are going to glue on with contact adhesive.
Finished diameter should be the same as your commutator.
Cut the piece of water paper and trim until it fits perfectly โ€” apply glue and bind with elastic โ€” allow to cure.
Fit into endbell, assemble brushes and springs, and rotate by hand to grind brushes โ€” check frequently.
Be sure to put the brushes back in the same way for further grinding or assembly.
It might help to scratch a small identifying mark on each brush for this purpose โ€” I normally mark them with - and + with the mark towards the terminal lug.
Step 16 - Reassemble the Motor When replacing the securing screws, try to reengage the original thread โ€” sure, they will self-tap a new thread but will far more easily strip โ€” particularly if you do this several times.
Apply a drop of oil to each bush โ€” do not over-oil.
I use automatic transmission fluid ATF.
Step 17 โ€” Run in the Motor If you did not trim the commutator then it might be an idea not to grind the brushes and run the motor for an hour at 3-5 volts, an hour at 6-10 volts, and finally goose it up and down to flat out for several minutes.
If you skimmed the commutator and ground the brushes โ€” run the motor for 5 minutes at 5-6 volts and finally goose it up and down to flat out for several minutes.
Personally I have not found this to be a problem.
There is no point in winning by cheating โ€” or finding yourself disqualified after winning โ€” scrutineering tends to get more intense the more you win.
Now familiarize yourself with what follows for a more comprehensive understanding of what makes a slot car motor tick.
This understanding will help you make better decisions.
A complete technical discussion of the problem is too horrible to contemplate, involving complex subjects like hysterysis, reluctance, back EMF, phase diagrams etc.
This delay is very small milliseconds but in a motor turning at 1,000 revolutions per second it is a serious problem.
To improve the performance of the motor the commutator is "advanced" - turned further in the direction the motor is turning - so that the power is switched on earlier in order that maximum or at least optimum magnetic strength is achieved when it is most needed.
The timing can also be advanced by rotating the brush holders in the opposite direction to rotation.
This achieves exactly the same result as advancing the commutator.
The new Slotworks and Pro Slot motors have adjustable endbells A slow turning motor would not need to be advanced and could be run clockwise or anticlockwise with the same results.
A high speed motor is advanced to give optimum performance in one direction and at one speed only.
Running an advanced motor backwards i.
The degree of advance chosen by the manufacturers is also optimum for a given set of circumstances field magnet strength, stack length, wire turns, desired rpm, etc.
Under braking, the motor is acting as a generator and the situation is reversed; here we would need to retard the timing to improve the performance of the "generator" at a specific speed.
So we have to settle for an advance setting which is a compromise between top end and braking.
This is just one of many compromises that have to be considered in the design of a slot car motor.
More advance will give you more revs and improve the higher end torque but will cause reduced braking.
More advance will improve power at the higher revs but at the cost of a disproportionate increase in current and heat and a loss of low end power and torque.
You can over-advance a motor, i.
This will result in overall poor performance, very poor braking, massive current, and eventually - smoke.
This motor might "sing" on a bench but be lousy on the track.
Just for reference, a Parma 16D driving 17.
Unloaded it spins at about 60,000 RPM at 12v.
At 60,000 rpm the armature poles have to change polarity 2,000 times a second - fast!
If we assume that the manufacturer has chosen the advance setting correctly and built the motor properly then we would probably be unwise to adjust the timing.
However this assumption is probably faulty - the Parma 16D is nominally factory produced at 20ยฐ advanced; in practice this can vary by several degrees.
Also the Parma brush hoods are lousy and poor brush line-up also affects timing, as do many other factors such as magnets, driver preference, etc.
Motor Brushes In a three-pole slot car motor the ideal brush would have zero resistance and be paper thin.
Even if such a magic material were available it would simply fall into the gaps in the commutator and jam the motor.
The insulating grooves in the commutator have to be wide enough to prevent arc tracking across them and the brush obviously has to be wider than this in order not to fall in.
Unfortunately this mandatory requirement that the brush be wider than the grooves leads to short circuiting of the voltage across the gap this is very much lower than the applied voltage.
If the brush were a very good conductor this would nonetheless result in high short circuit currents.
Consequently all brushes are made slightly resistive, this being a compromise between the requirement for good conductivity down the brush and poor conductivity across the face of the brush.
Brush technology is a science all on its own.
So we make the brush face wider and wider; this leads to improved connectivity.
Some people think a wider brush leads to a longer power on period, but in reality it doesn't.
It does change the shape of the applied voltage wave during the weak periods ho slot car can motors the field but that's https://money-promocode-casino.site/can-35/free-car-games-can-play-parking-1045.html outside the scope of this article and it's a non-event with three-pole motors as other nasty things happen first As we make the brush face wider we will see an improvement in motor performance but we eventually reach a stage where the under-brush shorts negate any improvement created by the increase in width.
In three-pole motors we unfortunately reach the point where one segment of the commutator can touch both brushes leading to a true short circuit to the applied voltage.
This is a really serious problem as under a true dead short condition, not only can no power get into the motor but the existing magnetic fields collapse rapidly adding to the short circuit current and effectively applying "brakes" during the period of the short.
Note: because of the resistive nature of the brush it is never a true short circuit.
Also the under-brush pressure diminishes to the Cosine of the angle towards the edges, the pressure there being typically 75% of the centerline pressure.
However I would generally go for the higher copper content brush.
See next section for technical explanation of brush alignment problems.
Brush Alignment Issues - Technical Refer to the drawing below.
Fig 1 - Shows a standard Parma 16D commutator and brush arrangement using the broad side of the brush as the width refered to in some publications as a "vertical" brush, i.
However this is not the real problem - the Parma brush hoods are lousy and brush alignment terrible as a result.
Tiny errors in brush alignment leads to huge errors in both timing and short durations.
See diagrams and explanations further on.
Also if the diameter of the commutator is ho slot car can motors by skimming, massive changes occur - see Fig 2 - the commutator has been skimmed 0.
Now I don't know about you but I don't want my motor shorted out for 42% of each revolution.
I would suggest that if you have to significantly skim the commutator you switch to "horizontal" brushes.
One read article the more common problems with the Parma hoods is that the brushes offset to one side.
Because of clearance in the brush hoods they shift in the direction of rotation which also retards timing.
Since any clearance in the brush hoods and there must be some will allow the motor to tilt the brush slightly which will always retard the timing and increase the short duration.
This is why running your motor backwards for a short while before a race helps sometimes.
The trailing edge tilts into the commutator and is rapidly abraded away so when you run your motor the correct way your timing is advanced and your short duration reduced - at least until the brushes fully settle in again โ€” see Fig 7.
So far so bad, but it gets worse.
All the above assume symmetry - if the offsets are in the same direction - see Fig 4 - then it really goes to hell in a handbasket.
Remember this happens three times a revolution.
Plus we have a 6ยฐ no-short on one side which does not help us and a 35.
So this motor is shorted for 29.
Combine this with an undersize commutator and it gets worse, a near certain recipe for hot copper to run out of your armature.
The obvious conclusion from this is that brush hoods must be very accurately aligned.
This is probably the most important setting on your car motor so get it visit web page />If your brushes are skewed they should at least be symmetrical.
If you find that your motor performance improves after fitting new brushes but starts to deteriorate after some bedding in then look at the contact angle on the face of the brush when you feel that your motor is running optimally make a sketch then file away the leading and trailing edges of the brush to this sketch whenever you feel performance is going off.
This switch is not as easy as it sounds as you need to modify or panel beat your brush hoods to accept and accurately guide this new configuration.
In some motors the fit is so bad loose that you can turn the brush โ€” that is not good news โ€” it's ridiculous โ€” fix it โ€” brushes need to be accurately aligned.
The Pro Slot detailed in the blueprinting section has excellent hoods and alignment.
For yet another trick you can remove material from the trailing edge of the brush โ€” chamfer say 0.
Similarly you can try the same thing on the leading edge this will do the same thing but retard the timing.
The diagram above shows how chamfering a brush by 0.
The obvious drawback is that will require frequent attention as the brushes wear and is therefore only suitable for sprint racing.
The next diagram shows the effects of imperfect alignment.
Some motors have absurdly small diameter comms relative to brush size.
I prefer a larger diameter commutator for less underbrush shorting - but this also increases power losses to brush friction โ€” everything on a slot car motor is a trade-off.
See diagram below for the difference in short circuit angles for various combinations.
There is no point in winning by cheating โ€” or finding yourself disqualified after winning โ€” scrutineering tends to get more intense the more you win.
Brush Shunts Slot car motors can draw a lot of amps - on in-rush particularly โ€” up to 10A on a 16D and 20A on a Group 12 often limited by the track surge amps to anywhere from 15-25A depending on local regulations.
That current can only get to the armature via the brush spring or via the friction connection of the brush in its hood.
Needless to say the brush spring is not a good conductor and neither is the brush itself or the friction nature of its connection to its hood.
Having said that the wall of the hood is https://money-promocode-casino.site/can-35/best-experience-money-can-buy-1065.html to conduct through less brush as its closer to the commutator โ€” but when it loses contact as it will do frequently then the current is passed via the spring and down the brush the worst route possible.
Also the spring can heat up making things worse even going so far as to soften and fail completely.
Some motors use a plastic spring post which will get burned off by an overheated spring โ€” such posts should be protected by a metal sleeve.
Most quality motor manufacturers now use metal bobbins instead.
Pro Slot motor with aluminum bobbins for springs.
Plastic post with heat sink sleeve.
The advantage of using a brush with an attached pigtail lead or shunt is that power is supplied directly to the brush and into the brush for ยฑ3mm minimum length so it's better all round.
This is how you go about doing it.
Then as lightly as possible at either end.
Now we only need 1ยฝ-2ยฝ mm of soldered length to solder to the tab so cut through your soldered section of wire about that far from where the wicking stopped โ€” i.
At the brush spring end we cut just short of where the wicking ends โ€” we only want the barest minimum of solder here to prevent the shunt from unravelling itself.
Next add a spot of oil just below the soldered end and allow it to wick in โ€” this will help prevent further solder wicking in to it when we solder it to the tab.
Next solder tin the tab โ€” do this before attempting to solder the shunt in place.
Next hold the shunt wire just below the solder with needle nose pliers or tweezers โ€” this is also to stop further wicking โ€” and then quickly solder it to the end of the tab closest to the motor โ€” this to leave the remainder of the tab available for the leadwire without unsoldering the shunt lead and risk further wicking.
Next route the free end to the brush and secure with the brush spring.
Ensure there is free play in the shunt and that it is not going to foul anything โ€” particularly as the brushes wear.
Also remember that crosswire will foul the brush hood before the spring does โ€” so keep an eye on brush wear.
Below โ€” back to back trials with and without the shunts.
The highest colour โ€” 56.
What this shows was there was a gain in power of 3.
The true gain from the shunt itself was 1.
Brush Hoods These bits are what typically make up your brush hoods.
Above is a Mura motor with solid tube hood sleeves, shunt leads, and enlarged heat sink plates.
Heavy money can buy love brush tubes.
Magnet Position Will moving my magnets closer to the armature improve my power and performance?
For a standard motor the short answer is no.
You need to understand what is going on - the resistance of the winding is very low, about 0.
What happens is as the pole passes through the magnetic field this induces a reverse voltage which opposes the incoming voltage so that at say 60,000 RPM the induced voltage is 13.
This is a simplified explanation โ€” the truth is a little more complicated relating to the impeadance of the electromagnet โ€” it is in fact an AC device โ€” notwithstanding that this is a DC motor - the individual poles are being constantly switched back and forth at relatively high frequencies.
The expanding magnetic bubble also resists the incoming voltage.
So if you move your magnets in you will increase the field strength and the reaction voltage will happen sooner - at lower revs.
So field strengthening reduces RPM and, as perverse as it seems, field weakening increases RPM.
But that is not the end of the story.
Any change in magnet strength or position must go hand in glove with an appropriate "wind".
If we were to increase torque at the expense of revs then we get no overall gain in power.
That said โ€” with an appropriate wind โ€” it will certainly give improved performance.
OK, you didn't listen and want to mess with your magnets anyway.
Reducing this air gap will increase the effective field strength by eliminating some of the reluctance of the air gap.
Note: Shimming your magnets with epoxy will accomplish almost nothing as the permeability of epoxy is the same as air โ€” all you will have accomplished is to move the gap from one side of the magnet to the other.
There is a very small improvement due to the proximity of the can at the sides.
It could well turn out that in your motor this method works better than mine โ€” I am more concerned that you understand what you are trying to achieve.
The same applies for brass and stainless shim stock.
Steel shim stock from an engineering supplier is OK but less than desirable.
Shimming must be accomplished with 4%SiFe โ€” find an old transformer and use pieces of its laminations as shim stock.
Any laminations from motors.
The next problem is how far are you going to shim?
These motors typically have 0.
You will note that the curvature of original equipment magnets does not match the armature - even allowing for clearance.
This is not a mistake, the pole piece is really not working all that well at the outer edges and increasing the field strength at the outer edges will amplify the under-brush shorting problems that I mentioned earlier.
See further notes on this later.
If you shim up 0.
This will exaggerate the radial error see picture later and unduly focus the magnetic field towards the center.
To overcome this you need to shim about 0.
To further complicate matters โ€” the inner and outer radii of the bent shim are the same โ€” so its thickness varies.
You also want to keep the honed bore shape uniform.
Parallel and highly polished.
The tiny clearance can also become easily fouled.
Polishing both the armature and the magnet will result in reduced aerodynamic drag - but the reduced airflow and turbulence will result in less cooling.
Having said that, a great deal of the heat is still transferred to the can and the small gap assists this, so I can't say I've ever seen this to be a major problem.
The thickness error mentioned earlier is visible in the picture above where the shim is drawn a constant thickness.
Refer to step 3 earlier.
With the motor on a shaft, dial gauge the OD of the can โ€” if the bush is off-center you can enlarge its mounting hole โ€” turn up a suitable plugging mandrel to fit the can or between the magnets to hold the bush aligned for soldering.
You can also mount it in a four-jaw chuck or collet chuck on a lathe and machine an undersized soldered in bush to this web page dead center, etc.
If you want a simpler shimming method, you can do it with epoxy filled with iron filings or my own personal preference - magnet dust.
Given the problems of shim fit up this method works surprisingly well.
Grind against a diamond wheel on a bench grinder โ€” attach a NIB magnet to the work rest to catch all the filings.
Mix a quality slow curing epoxy and add filings until it forms a thick paste โ€” add as much powder as you can.
Use this to glue the magnets in place โ€” use a dummy armature blank or an old armature โ€” depending on your required final position โ€” trim excess after cure.
Tip: Apply release agent to can and magnets if you want to be able to remove or trim simply after doing this โ€” you can always superglue into place later.
This simplifies rectification if you make a complete hash of it.
If you have access to a lathe you can first coat the magnets and then trim them to size which is what I do : I next apply the paste to the back of my magnet pair and allow it to cure, then I trim the ends and sides with a file and finally turn the OD on a mandrel specially made for the job.
Shown is a home-turned endbell โ€” hone does not always fit into the brush hood end โ€” easy enough to knock up if you have a lathe.
The crosswise magnet retaining tabs have been hammered flat โ€” to bend them in over the shimmed magnets needs tooling โ€” simply bending will likely crack or chip the magnets.
I just place a blob of solder on the inside as a retainer and hope the epoxy does its job.
These are available in different sizes from ho slot car can motors US slot car parts suppliers.
You need to specify size โ€” typically 0.
I used to use a light oil or paraffin โ€” water seems just as good and far less bother.
You obviously assemble this into the can and endbell and slowly use it to bore through the magnets.
This gives you a perfectly symmetrical bore.
Sintering consists of first mixing these materials as a very fine powder consistency of talcum powder followed by compaction into a die under immense pressure followed by heat treatment in a controlled atmosphere furnace typically a vacuum or reduction atmosphere to fuse some or all of the materials together.
At this point the blank has no magnetic field.
Usually the pole pieces focus down to the blank and the tips conform to the shape of the blank re: earlier comments about air gaps being bad news to magnetic circuit strength typically clamping the blank in place with no clearance whatsoever.
Magnet Zappers for slot cars typically consist of a coil and the motor can, magnets, and core blank are placed in the center of the coil.
Below a typical slot car zapper โ€” note plastic holder for the motor can axle side โ€” North โ€” up.
Can and holder are then loaded into the coil.
On firing the zapper an immense pulse of electrical energy from a capacitor is discharged into windings around this magnetic circuit - briefly introducing a very large magnetic field โ€” this permanently polarises the magnetic blank s.
Zapper above produces 25,000G for 1.
Typically this saturates the blank to its maximum magnetized state.
Its maximum magnetic strength therefore depends on the material it was made from in the first place.
For slot car motors the ferrite-ceramic is typically used, as the NIB type although more powerful are much more likely to fade in the presence of heat, mechanical shock, and the alternating fields of the armature.
Magnetic Failure in a Slot Car Motor The motor magnets are subjected to heat in use as well as heat from soldering into place and the magnetic influences of the armature whirling away inside of them โ€” this has the tendency to demagnetise the magnets over time.
You place it on the shelf and two years later in desperate need of a motor you press it back into service to find its now working well again perhaps not as good as it once was but certainly better than when you shelved it.
What has happened is that the magnetic field has realigned itself while sitting idle.
It might realign but it will never regain its strength.
Such a motor would be rejuvenated by zapping its magnets.
Magnet Zapping Commercially-available magnet zappers are available for remagnetizing slot car magnets.
With this type of zapper you do not have the ability to zap a mounted or assembled motor never a good idea in any case โ€” but they are way cheaper and more convenient to carry around than a hard pole type which typically weigh 10-20kg.
The iron slug may be a simple best fit round bar or a dual radius profiled slug the inner radii do not share a common centre.
The best fit round bar leaves air gaps at the outer edges so the magnetic field is focussed towards the centre โ€” which is generally good โ€” but the overall magnetic strength may be reduced due to the outer edges not saturating.
A conformal plug will produce a straight through field which will be stronger overall be but not focussed towards the middle where it will do the most good.
The best fit round bar is in my opinion the best method as its simplicity outweighs any dubious advantage.
Mild steel is a poor substitute but it works fine on ferrite-ceramic types.
The clamps may conform to the outer radius and the core to the inner radius โ€” for little or no air gap.
With this type of zapper the magnets can be zapped in the can, out of the can, singly, or in pairs or even the whole motor โ€” in some cases even if soldered into the chassis if access permits.
A "hard pole" type magnet zapper 3 As mentioned above, you can do one magnet at a time with appropriate pole pieces โ€” the gain of a slight increace in magnetic pulse due to a shorter magnetic circuit does not necessarily result in a more powerful magnet which has almost certainly been saturated will not get any stronger.
Worse, a pair produced in two goes may have field misalignment and focus problems so its see more to do magnets as matched pairs.
With this method you have the iron can and the air gaps to the rotor to interfere with your magnetic circuit as well as the limited saturation of the armature โ€” so you will probably not achieve saturation of your magnets.
Also the three-pole armature can never align properly with the two pole magnets so the resulting field will be somewhat out of shape see diagram later.
Additionally, the armature will become polarised โ€” but this is not a problem as it is demagnetised in the first few revolutions once it is spun up โ€” by the rapid cycling of the poles.
This method is not recommended other than as an emergency measure โ€” however if it works well, then it works.
Approximate Magnetic Field Shape Conformal vs Non-Conformal Clamping of Magnets in Zapper From the above it can be seen that using conformal pole pieces and slugs creates the potential for a far stronger magnetic circuit by eliminating air gaps.
Clearly there is yet another trade off at work here as to how much focussing is beneficial to the trade off loss of overall magnetic field strength.
Equally clearly this can be adjusted by the shape of the clamping and core pieces โ€” your guess is as good as mine!
Caution: Magnet zappers should not be used near electronic apparatus, memory storage devices or PERSONS WITH PACEMAKERS or hearing aids.
The EMP electromagnetic pulse given off when the zapper is fired is potentially hazardous.
Remove your digital watch, cellphone, iPad, magstripe or chip and pin credit cards to a safe distance โ€” typically more than 3m away preferably behind a steel shield.
If you do this, correct by rezapping twice the right way around โ€” as one zap may not fully coerce the field reversal โ€” similarly if you elect to keep the accidental ho slot car can motors you should also zap it a second time for the same reason.
A good zapper should be able to completely reverse the magnetic field with one zap.
The armature, clearance, and radius mismatch all have a role to play here.
More on this later.
What should be obvious is that you cannot zap multiple pole pieces without first dismantling them and individually zapping opposing pairs before reassembly they are usually epoxied together or into place with special epoxy.
So these are normally purchased from a manufacturer already built up โ€” often already in a can.
If you zap an assembled multipole ho slot car can motors will turn it back into a single made up of many parts but nonetheless a single.
The same would be required for zapping assembled multipoles.
Since your zapper will have limited power we want to get as much out of this as possible โ€” so use high permeability iron, make the non-concentric outer radii to suit the best fit diameter is less than optimum here but you can do that for expediency.
In the RH drawing the material to be removed is shaded in green.
Particularly note the two crescent slivers because of the magnet face radius being bigger than the blank radius โ€” non-coherent centres.
Obviously if you have honed out your magnets this does not apply; the magnet inner radii are true to the centerline.
At each step, zap a pair of magnets and then reverse zap โ€” if it reverses from full forward to full field reversal then you are OK and can take off more material but eventually you will run into trouble you will need a Gaussmeter to check.
If your zapper could not effect a field reversal in the first place then there is something wrong with it โ€” replace or uprate it.
Above photo โ€” plain and focussed zapping core plugs โ€” standing on a graph of back to back motor trials which show no significant difference in output power.
However the focussed field was much more sensitive to changes to advance and retard โ€” see advanced motor testing later.
The focussed field motor ran to 67,500 RPM at 12.
What should be apparent is that focussing the field is advantageous but is a smaller advantage than you might think.
The illustration on the left should also explain why zapping a motor with the armature in place instead of a round blank will never produce an equal and opposite pair of magnets.
Air Gap In most slot car motors the gap between the armature and the magnet faces is smaller at the middle โ€” i.
That said, remember the motor was originally built for a certain wind and that has been taken into account one would presume but it does allow you to get more out of your existing magnets โ€” same cautions on appropriateness of winds.
It is also possible to do all this work and suffer diminished performance, which is a serious bummer.
As a rule of thumb I would suggest that when using a standard armature, even a blueprinted one, then it is not worth doing anything to your magnets other than zapping.
However for some of the more serious winds, like the PS700B displayed earlier, I reckon its almost mandatory that you up your magnetic performance.
My final caveat on this subject: remember you can always overdo things.
Gauss refers to the strength of the magnetic field produced by a magnet โ€” its magnetic flux density.
Meters are available but you can also jerry-rig using compasses or use the pull off force of a steel ball and fishing scale, etc.
As pointed out after zapping a magnet will almost certainly be saturated and therefore at its strongest.
What we are concerned with is are our magnets a matching pair and are they stronger or weaker than what we normally use or are they better or worse after zapping, etc.
In other words we only need can you actually money poker comparative value rather than an exact scientific result.
A simple alternate method is to lay an iron rod โ€” same diameter as inside radius of magnet but too heavy to be lifted by the magnet - on a digital weighing scale โ€” zero the scale โ€” attach the magnet to the middle of the bar and slowly pull it off โ€” the scale will go further and further negative โ€” note the reading in grams at which the magnet comes loose and record this force as an indicator of its strength.
Since this is absolutely only a comparative value, it is imperative that you keep this iron bar for all future measurements.
Next we should want to keep matched pairs together; two magnets in a motor are almost certainly made from the same batch of mixed powders and were zapped as a pair.
The same would not hold true for magnets made years apart.
We might find a range of values and after zapping re-match those that most closely match each other.
Pack into containers and label their values.
Now we can try a range from weaker to stronger to see which produce the best results on a given armature.
Refer to earlier comments re: magnet position and field strength.
The only other alternative is silver wire.
These can only be reduced by using the best permeability 4% silicone Iron and by reducing the lamination thickness.
Motors with thinner laminations and short stack lengths will lose less power to this phenomenon.
Note: short stack length must still have enough iron core to do the job โ€” with respect to wind and field strength.
Advanced Motor Testing Ideally you need to adopt a scientific method of recording all your modifications and adjustments.
Unfortunately that means you need to also be able to measure the outcome.
Typically this has meant testing against the clock on the track โ€” the problem with that is it is hugely subjective and if like me your driving abilities vary and the difference is small you will not really be able to tell.
This was an awful lot of effort to build, is a PITB to drag around, and is totally analogue.
While it works, it only gives you brief glimpses and no output data.
Yeah, you can note down a bunch of readings https://money-promocode-casino.site/can-35/games-you-can-play-on-two-tablets-1064.html being a braked dyno it can convert a motor to smoke real quick.
How do I know it works?
It delivers repeatable results โ€” re: data comparison of two runs on same motor days apart.
Results are within ยฑ2% which is way better resolution than I have come across with anything else.
You can print the graphics above which have been subject to smoothing algorythms โ€” the raw data view is also available as well as a raw data download to the desktop which can be pasted into Excel, etc.
It works by accelerating a known inertial mass aluminium disk and monitoring the volts, amps, and acceleration via photocells and four holes in the disk then calculates torque, power, and efficiency which it displays alongside the amps in the graphics which can be archived in a built-in database.
You can superimpose graphics to compare the differences from any changes you have made.
I am completely blown away by this elegant piece of kit โ€” not cheap but a lot less than I spent building my own and one helluva lot better.
I am not sure whether Ken is actually monitoring Slotblog, so questions to him may in fact not be answered.
The thread is now open for posts and comments.
Silver solder to reattach wire to tabs.
Set to 400 degrees for 5 min.
With arm on a cookie sheet.
And a very slight twist with two rags, until you felt resistance.
That's old school but it worked for me back in the day.
Tried to add 7 to 10 degrees.
I would lay my brushes side by side to camber to get them equal.
Then just reverse one.
Brush hoods can actually be twisted in opposite directions up on neg.
With a little twist using the brush hood alignment tool and practice it'll work.
You can remove the brush hoods, you'll see the plastic spacers that align the hoods to the endbell.
Now the hoods will slide up or down.
Of course the more you file off the spacers the more advancing you can achieve.
Redneck but it works.
I only saw one thing I would question.
When you file the first third off the side of each brush and install the filed side as the trailing edge it doesn't change the timing it only reduces the brush overlap and by doing so it eliminates the underbrush shorts that cause "push starts" and reduces heat.
The only way I know to increase the timing using the brushes only is to advance the leading edge of the brush by repositioning the brush hoods.
Installing the filed edge of the brush as the leading edge only retards timing and has no affect on overlap.
I would have to agree with Fast Freddie, I always thought the only way to advance the timing was to rotate the brushes in relation to the field only.
Parma hoods make this easy since they are so sloppy.
It shows what does not work and what to never do again, again.
Took some of us decades to amass this info.
Kind of like the magician that has the mask and gives up a lot of secrets but not all of them.
Kudos to his efforts so lets get building.
The next articles should be driving the car.
It should be good for 2 tenths.
When you file the first third off the side of each brush and install the filed side as the trailing edge it doesn't change the timing it only reduces the brush overlap and by doing so it eliminates the underbrush shorts that cause "push starts" and reduces heat.
The only way I know to increase the timing using the brushes only is to advance the leading edge of the brush by repositioning the brush hoods.
Installing the filed edge of the brush as the leading edge only retards timing and has no affect on overlap.
Awesome article, everything to get started on building and tuning motors.
I would have to agree with Fast Freddie, I always thought the only way to advance the timing was to rotate the brushes in relation to the field only.
Parma hoods make this easy since they are so sloppy.
Not all of it accurate.
As Fred and Chris mention, you can't advance or retard your timing by just trimming the brushes.
Also a shunt with a built-in pigtail being superior is silly.
The spring pressure eliminates any resistance that will make a difference in actual track performance.
And on anything other than a G7, you won't see a loss in performance by not using shunt wires.
I've seen G27 motors numerous times get a shunt pulled out of place in a bad crash, dangling in mid-air, and didn't see a loss of speed.
PS: And I'm glad to see the author's cavalier attitude toward motor seals got edited out.
Mike Swiss IRRA ยฎ Components Committee Chairman Five-time USRA National Champion two G7, one G27, two G7 Senior Two-time G7 World Champion 1988, 1990eight G7 main appearances Eight-time G7 King track single lap world record holder 17B West Ogden Ave Westmont, IL 60559, 708 203-8003, mikeswiss86 hotmail.
But there are some instances where there's more than one way to skin a cat.
I have seen an improvement of 50 to 100 thousandths on the track by only trimming the brushes!
Chris All princpals are sound and should be adhered to.
But there are some instances where there's more than one way to skin a cat Truing the comm by rotating it by the headstock in a big lathe isn't real sound.
For a guy who seems to obsess about detail, there are certainly more precise ways to do it.
Also, does he really think he can change the orientation pattern on standard ceramic mags by using a bowtie slug.
The strands in a ceramic mag are what they are permanentbe it radial or straight.
I'm sorry, but IMO, this guy is a better draftsman than a motor engineer.
Mike Swiss IRRA ยฎ Components Committee Chairman Five-time USRA National Champion two G7, one G27, two G7 Senior Two-time G7 World Champion 1988, 1990eight G7 main appearances Eight-time G7 King track single lap world record holder 17B West Ogden Ave Westmont, IL 60559, 708 203-8003, mikeswiss86 hotmail.
I know Biscuit won GT1 at a USRA Nats with a motor without shunt wires.
We were told there would be no way a motor without shunt wires could compete with motors that had shunt wires.
We proved that was not the case at that particular race.
It did help, motors didn't run hot on that particular track.
Test, test, test and go test some more.
You're never fast enough!!!
Years ago I used to run amatuer Box and Ricky raced Pro Box.
We raced out of the same box, so no motors had shunts, so we could both use any motor.
We both did well in our respective classes.
I would use a small shunt in Retro, if allowed just to keep from that collapsed spring, that I have seen.
It's rare but does happen.
Rick Bennardo "Professional Tinkerer" LIKE my Facebook page for updates, new releases, and sales: Rgeo Slots.


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